Understanding the anatomy and physiology of plants depends fundamentally on knowledge of the organization and functioning of their cells.
Plant plant cells have at least two characteristics that clearly distinguish them from animal cells: have a rigid outer wrap, the cell wall, and a cytoplasmic organule responsible for photosynthesis, the plasto. Moreover, as adults, most plant cells have a large membranous pocket in the central region of the cytoplasm. central vacuole, which accumulates an aqueous substance of salts and sugars.
Plant Cell Wall
The cell wall begins to form even in the telophase of the mitosis that gives rise to the plant cell. Membrane pouches from the Golgi apparatus filled with gelatinous substances called pectinsaccumulate in the central region of the dividing cell and fuse into a plaque called fragmoplast.
As telophase progresses, the fragmoplast grows by the fusion of pectin pockets at its edges. During this centrifugal growth (that is, from the center outwards), pores form in the fragmoplast, through which passes hyaloplasm strands, which communicate the contents of future neighboring cells. These hyloplasmic bridges are plasmosdesmos (from Greek plasmoscytoplasmic fluid, and desmos, bridge, union).
The fragmoplast acts as a kind of “shape” for the construction of cellulosic walls. Each secret cell sister cellulose on the fragmoplast and builds, on its side, its own cellulosic wall. The pectin layer, which was the first separation between the sister cells, now acts as an intercellular cement. medium coverslip.