THE systematic It is the science dedicated to inventorying and describing biodiversity and understanding the phylogenetic relationships between organisms.
Includes taxonomy (science of discovery, description and classification of species and group of species, with its norms and principles) and also phylogeny (evolutionary relationships between organisms). In general, it is said to comprise the classification of the various living organisms. In biology, systematists are the scientists who classify species into other taxa to define how they relate evolutionarily.
The purpose of the classification of living things, called taxonomy, was initially to organize known plants and animals into categories that could be referred to. Subsequently, classification began to respect the evolutionary relationships between organisms, a more natural organization than that based only on external characteristics.
For this they also use ecological, physiological and other characteristics available to the taxa in question.. it is this set of investigations into taxa that is called Systematic. Classifications based on genome resemblance have been attempted in recent years, with major advances in some areas, especially when those from other fields of biology are added to this information.
The classification of living beings is part of the systematic, science that studies the relationships between organisms, which includes the collection, preservation and study of specimens, and the analysis of data from various areas of biological research.
The first classification system was that of Aristotle in the fourth century BC, who ordered the animals by the type of reproduction and whether or not they had red blood. His disciple Theophrast classified plants by their use and form of cultivation.
In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries botanists and zoologists began to delineate the current system of categories, still based on superficial anatomical features. However, since common ancestry may be the cause of such similarities, this system has been shown to be closer to nature, and remains the basis of the current classification. Lineu did the first extensive categorization work in 1758, creating the current hierarchy.
From Darwin Evolution has come to be regarded as the central paradigm of biology, and thus evidence of paleontology about ancestral forms, and embryology of similarities in the early stages of life. In the twentieth century, genetics and physiology became important in classification, such as the recent use of molecular genetics in comparing genetic codes. Specific computer programs are used in the mathematical analysis of data.
In February 2005 Edward Osborne Wilson, a retired professor at Harvard University, where he coined the term biodiversity and participated in the founding of sociobiology, defending a "genome project" of Earth's biodiversity, proposed the creation of a digital photo database. details of all living species and the completion of the Tree of Life project. In contrast to a system based on cellular and molecular biology, Wilson sees the need for descriptive systematics to preserve biodiversity.
From an economic point of view, argue Wilson, Peter Raven and Dan Brooks, systematics can bring useful insights into biotechnology and containment of emerging diseases. More than half of the planet's species is parasitic, and most of them are still unknown.
According to the current classification, the described species are grouped into genres. Genders are brought together if they have some characteristics in common, forming a family. Families, in turn, are grouped into one order. Orders are gathered in one class. Classes of living things are gathered in phil. And the phyla are finally components of some of the five Kingdoms (Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia).